By Keith W. Waldron
This ebook presents a accomplished and systematic reference at the complex biomass restoration and conversion approaches utilized in biorefineries. the 1st a part of the publication studies advancements in biorefining approaches, through a evaluation of other kinds of biorefinery platform. the second one 1/2 the e-book discusses the wide variety of further price items from biorefineries, from biofuel to biolubricants and bioadhesives.
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An aqueous solution of sugars which can be fermented to higher volume chemicals or biofuels. 5. A gaseous fraction (14 wt%) composed of CO and CH4 that could be used to fuel the process and CO2 which could be used for the wax extraction. It should be noted that both technologies are scalable and are commercially used by the food industry and yield several useful marketable products in the context of a wheat straw biorefinery. Microwave technology is less sensitive to water content than conventional convection heating.
In line with the EU’s innovation strategy and following the initiation of a new policy in 2006 aiming to support the development of high economic and societal value markets, the European Commission proposed further steps for the creation of lead markets. Bio-based products are the subject of one of the identified lead markets and fall into this category for several reasons (European Commission, 2007, 2009): • use of renewable and expendable resources • less dependency on limited and increasingly expensive fossil resources • the potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (carbon neutral/low carbon impact) • the potential for sustainable industrial production • potentially improved community health • support to rural development • increased industrial competitiveness through innovative eco-efficient products • potential for transfer to other regions of the world including the transfer of appropriate technologies discovered and proven in the EU.
Design for energy efficiency Energy requirements of chemical processes should be recognized for their environmental and economic impacts and should be minimized. If possible, synthetic methods should be conducted at ambient temperature and pressure. 7. Use of renewable feedstocks A raw material or feedstock should be renewable rather than depleting whenever technically and economically practicable. 8. Reduce derivatives Unnecessary derivatization (use of blocking groups, protection/ deprotection, temporary modification of physical/chemical processes) should be minimized or avoided if possible, because such steps require additional reagents and can generate waste.
Advances in biorefineries: Biomass and waste supply chain exploitation by Keith W. Waldron