By Peter L. Auer and David Douglas (Eds.)
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Extra resources for Advances in Energy Systems and Technology. Volume 5
It is characterized by a relatively low, flat demand during much of the night, with an 1000 0 Midnight 4 8 12 16 Noon Time of Day 20 24 Midnight Fig. 21. Typical daily electric load variations. Fuel Cells for Electric Utility Power Generation 43 increasing demand in the early morning and with significant variations during the rest of the day and early evening. Depending on the utility's location and the season, there may be one or two peaks during the day. This curve can be separated into three areas: the "baseload" power level required at least 70% of the time, the incremental power level (called "intermediate duty") above the baseload required 15-70% of the time, and the additional power level required to meet the peaks that will occur 0-15% of the time.
A cathode current collector that has similar requirements and configurational options as the anode current collector: Since nickel is thermodynamically unstable, material options include corrosion-resistant stainless steel. As with PAFCs, individual cells are stacked in series to result in a cell stack of the required power and voltage output. Cell and manifold sealing is accomplished by wet seals and the use of an inert caulking (again similar to PAFC with different materials). 0 ^act (total) 0 50 100 150 200 Current Density (mA/cm 2 ) 250 300 Fig.
Figure 22 shows these requirements as a function of the total peak demand and operating hours per year. There are two major components to electricity cost: the fuel cost and the (amortization of the) capital cost. For baseload plants, fuel cost is the more significant component, whereas for peakers, capital cost is more important since these units operate for relatively few hours and therefore use relatively little fuel, but charge the (interest on) capital against the few operating hours. For economical electricity production, a utility carefully plans its generation mix to use low-cost fuels (coal and nuclear) to provide baseload capacity; the high capital cost of the units can be amortized over the long operating hours.
Advances in Energy Systems and Technology. Volume 5 by Peter L. Auer and David Douglas (Eds.)